The history of Hinduism The history of Hinduism in India can be traced to about bce. Sources of Hinduism Indo-European sources The earliest literary source for the history of Hinduism is the Rigveda , consisting of hymns that were composed chiefly during the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.
The religious life reflected in this text is not that of contemporary Hinduism but of an earlier sacrificial religious system, referred to by scholars as Brahmanism or Vedism , which developed in India among Indo-European -speaking peoples.
Scholars from the period of British colonial rule postulated that this branch of a related group of nomadic and seminomadic tribal peoples, originally inhabiting the steppe country of southern Russia and Central Asia , brought with them the horse and chariot and the Sanskrit language. These scholars further averred that other branches of these peoples penetrated into Europe, bringing with them the Indo-European languages that developed into the chief language groups now spoken there.
These theories have been disputed, however, and the historical homeland of the Indo-Europeans continues to be a matter of academic and political controversy. The Vedic people were in close contact with the ancestors of the Iranians, as evidenced by similarities between Sanskrit and the earliest surviving Iranian languages. Thus, the religion of the Rigveda contains elements from three strata: Hinduism arose from multiple sources and from the geniuses of individual reformers in all periods.
Present-day Hinduism contains few direct survivals from its Indo-European heritage. Some of the elements of the Hindu wedding ceremony, notably the circumambulation of the sacred fire and the cult of the domestic fire itself, are rooted in the remote Indo-European past. The same is probably true of some aspects of the ancestor cult.
Another example of the common Indo-Iranian heritage is the Vedic god Varuna. A third example can be seen in the sacred drink soma , which corresponds to the sacred haoma of Zoroastrianism. Even in the earlier parts of the Rigveda, however, the religion displays numerous Indian features that are not evident in Indo-Iranian traditions.
Some of the chief gods, for example, have no clear Indo-European or Indo-Iranian counterparts. Although some of these features may have evolved entirely within the Vedic framework, it is generally presumed that many of them stem from the influence of inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent who had no connection with Indo-European peoples. Some scholars have further argued that the ruling classes of the Indus civilization , also called the Harappa culture c. But there is little supporting evidence for this claim, and the presence of Dravidian speakers throughout the whole subcontinent at any time in history is not attested.
From the time of the Vedas c. This development resulted from the desire of lower-class groups to rise on the social ladder by adopting the ways and beliefs of the higher castes. Further, many local deities were identified with the gods and goddesses of the Puranas. Sanskritization still continues in the form of the conversion of tribal groups, and it is reflected in the persistence of the tendency among some Hindus to identify rural and local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts.
Sanskritization also refers to the process by which some Hindus try to raise their status by adopting high-caste customs, such as wearing the sacred cord and becoming vegetarians.
If Sanskritization has been the main means of connecting the various local traditions throughout the subcontinent, the converse process, which has no convenient label, has been one of the means whereby Hinduism has changed and developed over the centuries. Many features of Hindu mythology and several popular gods—such as Ganesha , an elephant-headed god, and Hanuman , the monkey god—were incorporated into Hinduism and assimilated into the appropriate Vedic gods by this means.
Similarly, the worship of many goddesses who are now regarded as the consorts of the great male Hindu gods, as well as the worship of individual unmarried goddesses, may have arisen from the worship of non-Vedic local goddesses. Thus, the history of Hinduism can be interpreted as the interplay between orthoprax custom and the practices of wider ranges of people and, complementarily, as the survival of features of local traditions that gained strength steadily until they were adapted by the Brahmans.
The prehistoric period 3rd and 2nd millennia bce Indigenous prehistoric religion The prehistoric culture of the Indus valley arose in the latter centuries of the 3rd millennium bce from the metal-using village cultures of the region. There is considerable evidence of the material life of the Indus people, but its interpretation remains a matter of speculation until their writing is deciphered.
Enough evidence exists, however, to show that several features of later Hinduism may have had prehistoric origins. In most of the village cultures, small terra-cotta figurines of women, found in large quantities, have been interpreted as icons of a fertility deity whose cult was widespread in the Mediterranean area and in western Asia from Neolithic times c.
This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the goddess was apparently associated with the bull —a feature also found in the ancient religions farther west.
Religion in the Indus valley civilization The Harappa culture, located in what is now Pakistan , has produced much evidence of what may have been a cult of a goddess and a bull. Figurines of both occur, female figures being more common, while the bull appears more frequently on the many steatite seals.
A horned figure, possibly with three faces, occurs on a few seals, and on one seal he is surrounded by animals. A few male figurines, one apparently in a dancing posture, may represent deities.
No building has been discovered at any Harappan site that can be positively identified as a temple, but the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro may have been used for ritual purposes, as were the ghats bathing steps on riverbanks attached to later Hindu temples. The presence of bathrooms in most of the houses and the remarkable system of covered drains indicate a strong concern for cleanliness that may have been related to concepts of ritual purity but perhaps merely to ideas of hygiene.
The Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro. Asher Many seals show what may be religious and legendary themes that cannot be interpreted with certainty, such as seals depicting trees next to figures who may be divinities believed to reside in them. The bull is often depicted standing before a sort of altar, and the horned figure has been interpreted overconfidently as a prototype of the Hindu god Shiva.
Small conical objects have been interpreted by some scholars as phallic emblems, though they may have been pieces used in board games. Other interpretations of the remains of the Harappa culture are even more speculative and, if accepted, would indicate that many features of later Hinduism were already in existence 4, years ago.
Survival of archaic religious practices Some elements of the religious life of current and past folk religions—notably sacred animals, sacred trees especially the pipal, Ficus religiosa , and the use of small figurines for worship—are found in all parts of India and may have been borrowed from pre-Vedic civilizations.
On the other hand, these things are also commonly encountered outside India, and therefore they may have originated independently in Hinduism as well. The Vedic period 2nd millennium—7th century bce The people of the early Vedic period left few material remains, but they did leave a very important literary record called the Rigveda.
Its 1, hymns are distributed throughout 10 books, of which the first and the last are the most recent. A hymn usually consists of three sections: The Rigveda is not a unitary work, and its composition may have taken several centuries. In its form at the time of its final edition, it reflected a well-developed religious system. The date commonly given for the final recension of the Rigveda is bce. During the next two or three centuries it was supplemented by three other Vedas and still later by Vedic texts called the Brahmana s and the Upanishads see below Vedas.
Challenges to Brahmanism 6th—2nd century bce Indian religious life underwent great changes during the period — bce. This century was marked by the rise of breakaway sects of ascetics who rejected traditional religion, denying the authority of the Vedas and of the Brahmans and following teachers who claimed to have discovered the secret of obtaining release from transmigration. There were many other heterodox teachers who organized bands of ascetic followers, and each group adopted a specific code of conduct.
They gained considerable support from ruling families and merchants. The latter were growing in wealth and influence, and many of them were searching for alternative forms of religious activity that would give them a more significant role than did orthodox Brahmanism or that would be less expensive to support.
The scriptures of the new religious movements throw some light on the popular religious life of the period. The Brahmans were very influential, but there was opposition to their large-scale animal sacrifices—on moral , philosophical, and economic grounds—and to their pretensions to superiority by virtue of their birth.
The doctrine of transmigration was by then generally accepted, though a group of outright materialists—the Charvakas , or Lokayatas—denied the survival of the soul after death. The ancestor cult, part of the Indo-European heritage, was retained almost universally, at least by the higher castes. Popular religious life largely centred around the worship of local fertility divinities yaksha s , cobra spirits naga s , and other minor spirits in sacred places such as groves.
Although these sacred places were the main centres of popular religious life, there is no evidence of any buildings or images associated with them, and it appears that neither temples nor large icons existed at the time.
The orthodox Brahmanical teachers reacted to these tendencies by devising the doctrine of the four ashrama s, which divided the life of the twice-born after initiation into four stages: This attempt to keep asceticism in check by confining it to men of late middle age was not wholly successful.
Thereafter Hindu social theory centred on the concept of varnashrama dharma, or the duties of the four classes varna s and the four ashramas, which constituted the ideal that Hindus were encouraged to follow. The first great empire of India, the Mauryan empire , arose in the 3rd century bce. Its early rulers were non-Brahmanic; Ashoka reigned c. Sentiments in favour of nonviolence ahimsa and vegetarianism , much encouraged by the non-Brahmanic sects, spread during the Mauryan period and were greatly encouraged by Ashoka.
A Brahmanic revival appears to have occurred with the fall of the Mauryas. The orthodox religion itself, however, was undergoing change at this time, as theistic tendencies developed around the gods Vishnu and Shiva. Inscriptions, iconographic evidence, and literary references reveal the emergence of devotional theism in the 2nd century bce. Several brief votive inscriptions refer to the god Vasudeva , who by this time was widely worshipped in western India. At the end of the 2nd century, Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of King Antialcidas of Taxila in Pakistan , erected a large column in honour of Vasudeva at Besnagar in Madhya Pradesh and recorded that he was a Bhagavata , a term used specifically for the devotees of Vishnu.
Near the end of the Mauryan period, the first surviving stone images of Hinduism appear. Several large, simply carved figures survive, representing not any of the great gods but rather yakshas, or local chthonic divinities connected with water, fertility, and magic. The original locations of these images are uncertain, but they were probably erected in the open air in sacred enclosures. Temples are not clearly attested in this period by either archaeology or literature.
A few fragmentary images thought to be those of Vasudeva and Shiva, the latter in anthropomorphic form and in the form of a lingam , are found on coins of the 2nd and 1st centuries bce. Early Hinduism 2nd century bce—4th century ce The centuries immediately preceding and following the dawn of the Common Era were marked by the recension of the two great Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata the latter incorporating into it the Bhagavadgita.
The worship of Vishnu, incarnate as Krishna in the Mahabharata and as Rama in the Ramayana, developed significantly during this period see below Epics and Puranas , as did the cult of Shiva, who plays an active role in the Mahabharata. The rise of the major sects: In the Svetashvatara Upanishad , Rudra is for the first time called Shiva and is described as the creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe.
His followers are called on to worship him with devotion bhakti. The tendency for the laity to form themselves into religious guilds or societies—evident in the case of the yaksha cults, Buddhism, and Jainism—promoted the growth of devotional Vaishnavism and Shaivism.
These local associations of worshipers appear to have been a principal factor in the spread of the new cults. Theistic ascetics are less in evidence at this time, though a community of Shaivite monks, the Pashupatas, existed by the 2nd or 3rd century ce. The period between the fall of the Mauryan empire c. India was opened to influence from the West as never before, not only by invaders but also through flourishing maritime trade with the Roman Empire.
The effects of the new contacts were most obvious in art and architecture. One of the oldest freestanding stone temples in the subcontinent has been excavated at Taxila , near Rawalpindi, Pak. During the 1st century bce the Gandhara school of sculpture arose in the same region and made use of Hellenistic and Roman prototypes , mainly in the service of Buddhism. Hindu temples of the period probably were made of wood, because no remains of them have survived; however, literary evidence shows that they must have existed.
By the time of the early Gupta empire the new theism had been harmonized with the old Vedic religion, and two of the main branches of Hinduism were fully recognized. Of the 10 incarnations of later Vaishnavism, however, only two seem to have been much worshipped in the Gupta period 4th—6th century.
These were Krishna , the hero of the Mahabharata, who also begins to appear in his pastoral aspect as the cowherd and flute player, and Varaha , the divine boar, of whom several impressive images survive from the Gupta period. A spectacular carving in Udayagiri Madhya Pradesh dating from about ce depicts Varaha rescuing the earth goddess, Vasudha. Temples in Udayagiri c.