Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide. Changing Views of the History of the Earth.



Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide

Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide

Are Your Lenses Really "Hot"?!! Industar 61 lens lanthanum glass Lens Faults Pages Photo. Net on Radioactive Lenses gamma levels.. Radioactive Pentax Lens GM tube sound file.. Govt Surplus "Hot" Cameras and Lenses You will find two kinds of radioactive lenses - those that were contaminated and sold as government surplus, and those that are naturally "hot" or radioactive due to the radioactive elements or radioactive impurities used in their manufacture.

If you want to buy some slightly radioactive lenses and cameras, the U. Government has a lot of them for sale - cheap!. Maybe some of those bargains you got on EBAY are "hot" in a different sense than you might have thought! I am assuming that heavily contaminated and radioactive government surplus items end up in government low level radioactive waste land-fills or other burial sites.

So if your government surplus bargain camera or lens is contaminated, it is probably only "lightly" contaminated. That's good news, I guess? Our main focus here is not on contaminated lenses or cameras, but on naturally radioactive or "hot" lenses due to the materials used in their manufacture.

These slightly radioactive elements such as thorium or rare earth elements such as lanthanum were used to produce desired highly refractive glasses. Other uses for rare earth elements in photography include color enhancing filters. Ross' Romancing the Rare Earths for a history of enhancing filters and the use of various rare earth elements therein. Thorium is derived commercially from certain monazite sands e.

Thorium is radioactive itself, emitting alpha particles. The resulting "daughter" products of that radioactive decay series also produce both alpha and beta particles. This decay process means these thoriated glass lenses can gradually become more radioactive over time, as the more highly radioactive decay products build up in the glass. This result is counterintuitive. You would expect the radioactivity to decrease over time.

But after chemically purifying the thorium from its ore sources, the thorium is relatively free of these daughter products. Over time, the thorium decays, and the levels of radioactive daughter by-products builds up. Eventually a more highly radioactive equilibrium will be reached, as in the original radioactive ores. So over the years, your "hot" lenses are likely to get more radioactive rather than less.

Lanthanum has two isotopes in its natural form, one of which is weakly radioactive. Another source of rare earths such as lanthanum is cerite, which contains the element cerium.

Cheap glasses may have iron salts in them, often yielding the familiar green color of some iron salt contaminated glasses. Cerium is often added to glass to convert iron impurities into colorless compounds, yielding clear glass suitable for optical uses. Unfortunately, the rare earths include some chemically very similar elements as contaminants, many of which are mildly radioactive. The chemistry of lanthanum and its associated rare earths is so closely related that it is readily possible to have radioactive contaminants end up in the desired lanthanum salts used in making optical glasses.

The amount of such contaminants could also easily vary from batch to batch, depending on the degree of contamination in the original monazite or other mineral sources being used.

I don't think that the original levels of thorium or lanthanum specified for use in these lenses [e. Later lenses of the same exact design and glass formulas, but from later batches with higher serial numbers, do not exhibit any similar degree of radioactivity.

Nor do they suffer from yellow discoloration over decades of time. So it isn't the thorium or the lanthanum that causes the problem here. The radioactivity of these early lenses is caused by contaminants in the ingredients e. It is these radioactive contaminants which cause these lenses to be more radioactive than their later more purified batches of the same design.

However, don't assume that all yellow lenses are necessarily radioactive. Many lenses turn yellow due to aging of the Canada Balsam adhesives used to glue lenses together. Other lenses may have coloration biases which make them slightly yellowish rather than clear, or other colors depending on the glass. But if you have a lens using early specialty glasses wide angles, fast lenses..

Most school physics labs can do this, as can local Civil Defense offices and police or fire emergency response teams. Another important point here is that these contamination levels vary from batch to batch, depending on the contamination in the sands used to make the impure chemicals being used. So you have to test each lens to determine if it is radioactive, and how "hot" any given lens really is. Tests of one lens from one batch won't apply to another lens made from another batch of chemicals with different levels of radioactive contaminants.

You have to test each lens to be sure. Radioactivity in the first generation of hot lenses c. There are quite a few 'hot' rare-earth firstgeneration lenses Radioactivity in the second generation of lenses was down to the use of cerium to bleach iron salts in the glass; colourless ferrates are stable in glass solution. Once again, the purity of the cerium was questionable.

These are alpha-particle emitters, which ain't normally a problem -- even a lens-cap stops the particles, as does a few cm of air -- but it's not a good idea to use the lens as a telescope eye-piece, as some did. These second-generation lenses stretched well into the s; again from memory, at least one of the standard Takumars was 'hot'. Bob Shell 22 Sept. Roger Hicks, noted author of The Lens Book etc Radioactivity Radioactivity generally is found in three categories: The xray and gamma radiation is very penetrating, able to pierce through a foot or more of concrete, but for that reason it interacts less effectively with film or people than beta or alpha particles at closer ranges.

Alpha particles can only go through a few inches of air, and are stopped by a sheet of paper. But they can interact strongly with the surface of the cornea of the eye held near the glass for long periods. This event happens when an alpha particle emitter is used in the glass of a telescope or microscope eyepiece. Such exposures can produce cancers and radiation burns after long exposure and daily use. Beta particles can penetrate a few feet in air, or a range of thicknesses of cloth, paper, and other materials.

The beta particle emitters are most important photographically. Beta particles can penetrate camera shutters and film cassettes to fog film next to radioactively "hot" lenses left in your camera bag. Gamma and xrays can do so too, but their intensity is usually much less from the contaminants in glass than for beta particles.

Not all examples of any given lens type will necessarily be radioactive. Different batches may have been made with glass from different sources. The amount of radioactive contaminants may have also varied between different lens batches too.

See our Ektar lenses pages for listing of some of the many Ektar lenses that may be "hot", based on the above observations. The "lanthar" in the Voigtlander lens name evidently originated from the Lanthanum used to create the needed high refractive index glasses needed for these lens designs. Again, not all "Lanthar" lenses are necessarily radioactive, since the term was used for marketing on many lenses, not all of which may have used radioactive glass formulas.

Lanthanum Glass in Widespread Use There are an awful lot of lenses with lanthanum glass in them. Lanthanum crown glasses were developed by Morey at the NBS in the mid 's and developed commercially by Kodak who produced several Lanthanum glasses.

They were applied to a wide variety of lenses by the 's including the Ektar series of Tessar type lenses. There are likely few lenses made in the last sixty years which do not contain some Lanthanum glass. It was one of the first high index-low dispersion glasses. Richard Knoppow, see posting of 21 Sept below. The major direct impact of radioactivity on lenses is limited to the accumulation of particle tracks in the glass especially from alpha particles. But these changes can usually only be seen by microscopic examination.

Some radiation dose monitors use such particle tracks in special glasses to monitor radiation levels in medical or military settings.

However, the early glass formulas and contaminated chemicals used have produced lenses which have "yellowed" with age see posts. This yellowing is related to on-going chemical reactions in the lens related to the chemistry of the early glass formulas used in high refractivity glasses. See our lens color pages for tips on how to test your lenses for this thorium glass yellowish coloration.

Testing for Radioactivity in Lenses You can easily test a suspect lens using a sheet of high speed polaroid film see posts below. Place the lens glass element facing downward onto the polaroid sheet for a few days, and then develop.

If you see a foggy shadow or outline, you have a radioactive lens. You can also use longer exposure times with a sheet of photographic paper from your darkroom, provided you extend the exposures to several days and protect the paper from direct light fogging. This photographic approach was how nuclear radiation was first detected by Becquerel, thanks to a fogged photographic plate placed near a sample of uranium ore.

The trick still works. You can also use a standard geiger muller counter or other instrument able to detect beta and gamma rays. Just how radioactive are typical "hot" lenses? Studies of a half dozen Leica lenses see postings below came up with 1. This figure compares to 20 milliroentgens mrem per day maximum permissible dosage in many western countries.

But that 20 mrem is for whole body exposure, while the lenses mostly emit shorter range beta and alpha particles. On the other hand, it may take just a single gamma ray to turn one of your cells into a cancerous cell and cause a tumor. The biggest real medical danger is to users of eyepieces of radioactive glasses, where close proximity during long hours of viewing can result in high dosages to the cornea of the eye.

That's a danger of another sort, but worth knowing about unless you don't mind your Leica lenses ending up classified as "low level nuclear waste". Another professional danger is potential fogging of film due to prolonged close proximity in your camera bag between "hot" lenses and your sensitive film stocks.

Finally, I was firmly put down by some Leica collectors because the official factory sources had denied that any Leica lenses were radioactive.

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Half-life and carbon dating



Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide

Are Your Lenses Really "Hot"?!! Industar 61 lens lanthanum glass Lens Faults Pages Photo. Net on Radioactive Lenses gamma levels.. Radioactive Pentax Lens GM tube sound file..

Govt Surplus "Hot" Cameras and Lenses You will find two kinds of radioactive lenses - those that were contaminated and sold as government surplus, and those that are naturally "hot" or radioactive due to the radioactive elements or radioactive impurities used in their manufacture.

If you want to buy some slightly radioactive lenses and cameras, the U. Government has a lot of them for sale - cheap!. Maybe some of those bargains you got on EBAY are "hot" in a different sense than you might have thought! I am assuming that heavily contaminated and radioactive government surplus items end up in government low level radioactive waste land-fills or other burial sites.

So if your government surplus bargain camera or lens is contaminated, it is probably only "lightly" contaminated. That's good news, I guess? Our main focus here is not on contaminated lenses or cameras, but on naturally radioactive or "hot" lenses due to the materials used in their manufacture.

These slightly radioactive elements such as thorium or rare earth elements such as lanthanum were used to produce desired highly refractive glasses. Other uses for rare earth elements in photography include color enhancing filters.

Ross' Romancing the Rare Earths for a history of enhancing filters and the use of various rare earth elements therein. Thorium is derived commercially from certain monazite sands e.

Thorium is radioactive itself, emitting alpha particles. The resulting "daughter" products of that radioactive decay series also produce both alpha and beta particles. This decay process means these thoriated glass lenses can gradually become more radioactive over time, as the more highly radioactive decay products build up in the glass.

This result is counterintuitive. You would expect the radioactivity to decrease over time. But after chemically purifying the thorium from its ore sources, the thorium is relatively free of these daughter products. Over time, the thorium decays, and the levels of radioactive daughter by-products builds up.

Eventually a more highly radioactive equilibrium will be reached, as in the original radioactive ores.

So over the years, your "hot" lenses are likely to get more radioactive rather than less. Lanthanum has two isotopes in its natural form, one of which is weakly radioactive. Another source of rare earths such as lanthanum is cerite, which contains the element cerium. Cheap glasses may have iron salts in them, often yielding the familiar green color of some iron salt contaminated glasses. Cerium is often added to glass to convert iron impurities into colorless compounds, yielding clear glass suitable for optical uses.

Unfortunately, the rare earths include some chemically very similar elements as contaminants, many of which are mildly radioactive. The chemistry of lanthanum and its associated rare earths is so closely related that it is readily possible to have radioactive contaminants end up in the desired lanthanum salts used in making optical glasses.

The amount of such contaminants could also easily vary from batch to batch, depending on the degree of contamination in the original monazite or other mineral sources being used. I don't think that the original levels of thorium or lanthanum specified for use in these lenses [e. Later lenses of the same exact design and glass formulas, but from later batches with higher serial numbers, do not exhibit any similar degree of radioactivity.

Nor do they suffer from yellow discoloration over decades of time. So it isn't the thorium or the lanthanum that causes the problem here. The radioactivity of these early lenses is caused by contaminants in the ingredients e. It is these radioactive contaminants which cause these lenses to be more radioactive than their later more purified batches of the same design. However, don't assume that all yellow lenses are necessarily radioactive.

Many lenses turn yellow due to aging of the Canada Balsam adhesives used to glue lenses together. Other lenses may have coloration biases which make them slightly yellowish rather than clear, or other colors depending on the glass. But if you have a lens using early specialty glasses wide angles, fast lenses.. Most school physics labs can do this, as can local Civil Defense offices and police or fire emergency response teams.

Another important point here is that these contamination levels vary from batch to batch, depending on the contamination in the sands used to make the impure chemicals being used. So you have to test each lens to determine if it is radioactive, and how "hot" any given lens really is.

Tests of one lens from one batch won't apply to another lens made from another batch of chemicals with different levels of radioactive contaminants. You have to test each lens to be sure. Radioactivity in the first generation of hot lenses c. There are quite a few 'hot' rare-earth firstgeneration lenses Radioactivity in the second generation of lenses was down to the use of cerium to bleach iron salts in the glass; colourless ferrates are stable in glass solution.

Once again, the purity of the cerium was questionable. These are alpha-particle emitters, which ain't normally a problem -- even a lens-cap stops the particles, as does a few cm of air -- but it's not a good idea to use the lens as a telescope eye-piece, as some did. These second-generation lenses stretched well into the s; again from memory, at least one of the standard Takumars was 'hot'. Bob Shell 22 Sept. Roger Hicks, noted author of The Lens Book etc Radioactivity Radioactivity generally is found in three categories: The xray and gamma radiation is very penetrating, able to pierce through a foot or more of concrete, but for that reason it interacts less effectively with film or people than beta or alpha particles at closer ranges.

Alpha particles can only go through a few inches of air, and are stopped by a sheet of paper. But they can interact strongly with the surface of the cornea of the eye held near the glass for long periods. This event happens when an alpha particle emitter is used in the glass of a telescope or microscope eyepiece. Such exposures can produce cancers and radiation burns after long exposure and daily use.

Beta particles can penetrate a few feet in air, or a range of thicknesses of cloth, paper, and other materials. The beta particle emitters are most important photographically. Beta particles can penetrate camera shutters and film cassettes to fog film next to radioactively "hot" lenses left in your camera bag.

Gamma and xrays can do so too, but their intensity is usually much less from the contaminants in glass than for beta particles.

Not all examples of any given lens type will necessarily be radioactive. Different batches may have been made with glass from different sources. The amount of radioactive contaminants may have also varied between different lens batches too. See our Ektar lenses pages for listing of some of the many Ektar lenses that may be "hot", based on the above observations. The "lanthar" in the Voigtlander lens name evidently originated from the Lanthanum used to create the needed high refractive index glasses needed for these lens designs.

Again, not all "Lanthar" lenses are necessarily radioactive, since the term was used for marketing on many lenses, not all of which may have used radioactive glass formulas. Lanthanum Glass in Widespread Use There are an awful lot of lenses with lanthanum glass in them. Lanthanum crown glasses were developed by Morey at the NBS in the mid 's and developed commercially by Kodak who produced several Lanthanum glasses.

They were applied to a wide variety of lenses by the 's including the Ektar series of Tessar type lenses. There are likely few lenses made in the last sixty years which do not contain some Lanthanum glass.

It was one of the first high index-low dispersion glasses. Richard Knoppow, see posting of 21 Sept below. The major direct impact of radioactivity on lenses is limited to the accumulation of particle tracks in the glass especially from alpha particles. But these changes can usually only be seen by microscopic examination.

Some radiation dose monitors use such particle tracks in special glasses to monitor radiation levels in medical or military settings. However, the early glass formulas and contaminated chemicals used have produced lenses which have "yellowed" with age see posts. This yellowing is related to on-going chemical reactions in the lens related to the chemistry of the early glass formulas used in high refractivity glasses.

See our lens color pages for tips on how to test your lenses for this thorium glass yellowish coloration. Testing for Radioactivity in Lenses You can easily test a suspect lens using a sheet of high speed polaroid film see posts below. Place the lens glass element facing downward onto the polaroid sheet for a few days, and then develop. If you see a foggy shadow or outline, you have a radioactive lens.

You can also use longer exposure times with a sheet of photographic paper from your darkroom, provided you extend the exposures to several days and protect the paper from direct light fogging. This photographic approach was how nuclear radiation was first detected by Becquerel, thanks to a fogged photographic plate placed near a sample of uranium ore. The trick still works. You can also use a standard geiger muller counter or other instrument able to detect beta and gamma rays.

Just how radioactive are typical "hot" lenses? Studies of a half dozen Leica lenses see postings below came up with 1. This figure compares to 20 milliroentgens mrem per day maximum permissible dosage in many western countries.

But that 20 mrem is for whole body exposure, while the lenses mostly emit shorter range beta and alpha particles. On the other hand, it may take just a single gamma ray to turn one of your cells into a cancerous cell and cause a tumor. The biggest real medical danger is to users of eyepieces of radioactive glasses, where close proximity during long hours of viewing can result in high dosages to the cornea of the eye. That's a danger of another sort, but worth knowing about unless you don't mind your Leica lenses ending up classified as "low level nuclear waste".

Another professional danger is potential fogging of film due to prolonged close proximity in your camera bag between "hot" lenses and your sensitive film stocks. Finally, I was firmly put down by some Leica collectors because the official factory sources had denied that any Leica lenses were radioactive.

Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide

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5 Comments

  1. Aston devotes the remainder of his life to improving the design and precision of his device, and over time discovers of the naturally occurring isotopes.

  2. Kirwan was a scriptural geologist. Radioactivity in the second generation of lenses was down to the use of cerium to bleach iron salts in the glass; colourless ferrates are stable in glass solution.

  3. In a uniform medium, the amount of energy loss - and thus the degree of disruption - is greatest at the end of the particle's path of travel although energy will have been given up, and ionization of surrounding atoms will have occurred, along the entire path.

  4. De Beaumont was a relatively late catastrophist. Rise, stagnation and possible renaissance of uranium mining In the beginning of the Cold War , to ensure adequate supplies of uranium for national defense, the United States Congress passed the U. This type of analysis requires expensive equipment in which a focused beam of ions is directed at a spot on a mineral sample.

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