Etymology[ edit ] The word, brand, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood. That word comes from the Old High German , brinnan and Old English byrnan, biernan, and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Later the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. Through that association, the term eventually acquired its current meaning. History[ edit ] In pre-literate society, the distinctive shape of amphorae was used to provide consumers with information about goods and quality.
Amphorae for wine and oil, Archaeological Museum, Dion Branding and labelling have a very ancient history. Branding probably began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft.
Images of branding oxen and cattle have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs, dating to around 2, BCE. Branding was adapted for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics. Some form of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa, Asia and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty BCE ; large numbers of seals from the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley 3,—1, BCE where the local community depended heavily on trade; cylinder seals were introduced in Ur, Mesopotamia in around 3, BCE and facilitated the labelling of goods and property; and the use of maker's marks on pottery was commonplace in both ancient Greece and Rome  Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were also used in ancient Egypt.
She has shown that amphoras used in Mediterranean trade between 1, and BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer which were understood to convey information about product quality.
These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding.
Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which, over time, were transformed into clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality. Stamps were used on bricks, pottery, storage containers as well as fine ceramics. For example, 3rd century Gaulish pots, bearing the names of well-known potters and the place of manufacture such as Attianus of Lezoux, Tetturo of Lezoux and Cinnamus of Vichy, have been found as far away as Essex and Hadrian's Wall in England.
A series of five marks has been found on Byzantine silver dating from this period. We buy high quality steel rods and make fine quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time.
Details in the image show a white rabbit crushing herbs, and included advice to shoppers to look for the stone white rabbit in front of the maker's shop. Museo Bellini In ancient Rome, a commercial brand or inscription applied to objects offered for sale, was known as a titulus pictus. The inscription typically specified information such as place of origin, destination, type of product and occasionally quality claims or the name of the manufacturer.
Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house were decorated with images of amphorae bearing his personal brand and quality claims. The mosaic comprises four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, and bearing labels as follows: Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L.
Eumachius;" probably references to the name of the producer. Back section of a bracelet clasp with a hallmark of Hunnish craftsmanship, early 5th century The use of identity marks on products declined following the fall of the Roman Empire. However, in the Middle Ages with the rise of the merchant 's guilds , the use of marks resurfaced and was typically associated with specific types of goods. By the 13th century, the use of maker's marks was evident on a broad range of goods.
In , makers' marks on bread became compulsory. Hallmarks, although known from the 4th-century, especially in Byzantium,  only fell into general use during the Medieval period.
Some brands, still in existence, date from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries' period of mass production. Many years before Bass applied a red triangle to casks of its Pale Ale. In their red-triangle brand became the first registered trademark issued by the British government.
Recognised by Guinness World Records as having the world's oldest branding and packaging. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or company insignia on the barrels used, effectively using a corporate trademark as a quasi-brand.
It quickly became apparent that a generic package of soap had difficulty competing with familiar, local products. Packaged-goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Gradually, manufacturers began using personal identifiers to differentiate their goods from generic products on the market.
Marketers soon realised that brands to which personalities were attached outsold rival brands. By the s, large manufacturers had learned to imbue their brands' identity with personality traits such as youthfulness, fun, sex appeal, luxury or the 'cool' factor.
This began the modern practice now known as branding, where the consumers buy the brand instead of the product and rely on the brand name instead of the retailer. The process of giving a brand "human" characteristics was, at least in part, a response to consumer concerns about mass produced goods. Other brands which date from that era, such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal, furnish illustrations of the trend.
The Quaker Company was one of the earliest to use a character on its packaging, branding and advertising. The Quaker Man, c. Around , advertising guru, James Walter Thompson , published a house advertisement explaining trademark advertising. This was an early commercial explanation of what is now recognized as modern branding and the beginnings of brand management.
Naomi Klein has described this development as "brand equity mania". Business analysts have reported that what they really purchased was its brand name. With the rise of mass media in the early 20th century, companies soon adopted techniques that would allow their messages to stand out; slogans , mascots , and jingles began to appear on radio in the s and early television in the s.
Many of the earliest radio drama series were sponsored by soap manufacturers and the genre became known as a soap opera. In response to the announcement, advertising expenditure declined and Wall Street stocks nose-dived  for a large number of branded companies: Some analysts thought the event signalled the beginning of a trend towards "brand blindness" Klein 13 , questioning the power of "brand value," however the fall proved to be short-lived.
Concepts[ edit ] Effective branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but of other products associated with that brand. Brand development, often the task of a design team , takes time to produce. Brand names and trademarks[ edit ] Further information: Trademark and Trademark symbol Coca-Cola is a brand name, while the distinctive Spencerian script and the contour bottle are trademarked A brand name is the part of a brand that can be spoken or written and identifies a product, service or company and sets it apart from other comparable products within a category.
A brand name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, designs, or any combination of these elements. For consumers, a brand name is a "memory heuristic"; a convenient way to remember preferred product choices.
A brand name is not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the brand name or part of a brand that is legally protected. Corporate brand identity[ edit ] Simply, the brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of images, a slogan, a vision, a design, writing style, a particular font or a symbol etc.
For example, a brand may showcase its primary attribute as environmental friendliness. However, a brand's attributes alone are not enough to persuade a customer into purchasing the product. If a brand's attribute is being environmentally friendly, customers will receive the benefit of feeling that they are helping the environment by associating with the brand. Aside from attributes and benefits, a brand's identity may also involve branding to focus on representing its core set of values.
Even more extensive than its perceived values is a brand's personality. Aaker conceptualised brand personality as consisting of five broad dimensions, namely: Much of the literature on branding suggests that consumers prefer brands with personalities that are congruent with their own. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is termed the consumer's brand experience.
The brand is often intended to create an emotional response and recognition, leading to potential loyalty and repeat purchases. The brand experience is a brand's action perceived by a person. Orientation of an entire organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. Brand orientation develops in response to market intelligence. Marketers tend to treat brands as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price; rather brands represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer and are often treated as the total investment in brand building activities including marketing communications.
From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services can command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding such as a generic , store-branded product , potential purchasers may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the perceived quality of the brand or on the basis of the reputation of the brand owner.
Brands helps customers to understand which brands or products belong to which product or service category. Thus, the brand offers the customer a short-cut to understanding the different product or service offerings that make up a particular category.
Brand awareness is a key step in the customer's purchase decision process, since some kind of awareness is a precondition to purchasing. That is, customers will not consider a brand if they are not aware of it. Each form reflects a different stage in a customer's cognitive ability to address the brand in a given circumstance.
Most companies aim for "Top-of-Mind" which occurs when a brand pops into a consumer's mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example, when someone is asked to name a type of facial tissue, the common answer, "Kleenex", will represent a top-of-mind brand. Top-of-mind awareness is a special case of brand recall. Brand recall also known as unaided brand awareness or spontaneous awareness refers to the brand or set of brands that a consumer can elicit from memory when prompted with a product category Brand recognition also known as aided brand awareness occurs when consumers see or read a list of brands, and express familiarity with a particular brand only after they hear or see it as a type of memory aide.
Strategic awareness occurs when a brand is not only top-of-mind to consumers, but also has distinctive qualities which consumers perceive as making it better than other brands in the particular market. Brand recognition[ edit ] Brand recognition is one of the initial phases of brand awareness and validates whether or not a customer remembers being pre-exposed to the brand. This does not necessarily require that the consumers identify or recall the brand name.
When customers experience brand recognition, they are triggered by either a visual or verbal cue. When given some type of cue, consumers who are able to retrieve the particular memory node that referred to the brand, they exhibit brand recognition. When presented with a product at the point-of-sale, or after viewing its visual packaging, consumers are able to recognize the brand and may be able to associate it with attributes or meanings acquired through exposure to promotion or word-of-mouth referrals.
Brand recognition is most successful when people can elicit recognition without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors. Brand recall[ edit ] Unlike brand recognition, brand recall also known as unaided brand recall or spontaneous brand recall is the ability of the customer retrieving the brand correctly from memory.
This level of brand awareness is stronger than brand recognition, as the brand must be firmly cemented in the consumer's memory to enable unassisted remembrance. Thus, brand recall is a confirmation that previous branding touchpoints have successfully fermented in the minds of its consumers. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing-mix modeling techniques in conjunction with brand valuation. NBC's chimes provide a famous example.