Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis , colloquially known as "trich" Main types Sexually transmitted infections include: Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and bleeding in between periods, although most women do not experience any symptoms.
PID can cause serious problems during pregnancy and even has the potential to cause infertility. It can cause a woman to have a potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy , in which the egg implants outside of the uterus. However, Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics. The two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes simplex virus HSV. HSV-1 is typically acquired orally and causes cold sores, HSV-2 is usually acquired during sexual contact and affects the genitals, however either strain may affect either site.
Those that do experience symptoms usually notice them 2 to 20 days after exposure which last 2 to 4 weeks. Symptoms can include small fluid-filled blisters, headaches, backaches, itching or tingling sensations in the genital or anal area, pain during urination, Flu like symptoms , swollen glands, or fever.
Herpes is spread through skin contact with a person infected with the virus. The virus affects the areas where it entered the body. This can occur through kissing, vaginal intercourse, oral sex or anal sex. The virus is most infectious during times when there are visible symptoms, however those who are asymptomatic can still spread the virus through skin contact.
After the primary attack, one might have recurring attacks that are milder or might not even have future attacks. There is no cure for the disease but there are antiviral medications that treat its symptoms and lower the risk of transmission Valtrex. The virus, either type, will settle into a nerve bundle either at the top of the spine, producing the "oral" outbreak, or a second nerve bundle at the base of the spine, producing the genital outbreak.
Symptoms might not show up until advanced stages. It is important for women to get pap smears in order to check for and treat cancers. There are also two vaccines available for women Cervarix and Gardasil that protect against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
HPV can be passed through genital-to-genital contact as well as during oral sex. It is important to remember that the infected partner might not have any symptoms.
Gonorrhea is caused by bacterium that lives on moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, throat, and eyes. The infection can spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth or anus. Symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear 2 to 5 days after contact with an infected partner however, some men might not notice symptoms for up to a month. Symptoms in men include burning and pain while urinating, increased urinary frequency, discharge from the penis white, green, or yellow in color , red or swollen urethra, swollen or tender testicles, or sore throat.
Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge, burning or itching while urinating, painful sexual intercourse, severe pain in lower abdomen if infection spreads to fallopian tubes , or fever if infection spreads to fallopian tubes ; however, many women do not show any symptoms. Secondary syphilis Syphilis is an STI caused by a bacterium. Untreated, it can lead to complications and death. In recent years, the prevalence of syphilis has declined in Western Europe, but it has increased in Eastern Europe former Soviet states.
The virus kills CD4 cells, which are white blood cells that help fight off various infections. HIV is carried in body fluids, and is spread by sexual activity.
It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, breast feeding, childbirth, and from mother to child during pregnancy. The stages include primary infection , asymptomatic infection, symptomatic infection, and AIDS. In the primary infection stage, an individual will have flu like symptoms headache, fatigue, fever, muscle aches for about 2 weeks. In the asymptomatic stage, symptoms usually disappear, and the patient can remain asymptomatic for years.
People with AIDS fall prey to opportunistic infections and die as a result. By suppressing the amount of virus in the body, people can lead longer and healthier lives. Even though their virus levels may be low they can still spread the virus to others. Information on whether or not transmission occurs or whether the viruses cause disease is uncertain.
Some of these microbes are known to be sexually transmitted. Marburg virus — Virus in semen for seven weeks after clinical recovery.
Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body. The amount of contact with infective sources which causes infection varies with each pathogen but in all cases, a disease may result from even light contact from fluid carriers like venereal fluids onto a mucous membrane. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles , needle-stick injuries when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures , sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission.
These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk. In particular, sexually transmitted diseases in women often cause the serious condition of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Not all sexual activities involve contact: Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.
Other facilities strongly encourage that those previously infected return to ensure that the infection has been eliminated. Novel strategies to foster re-testing have been the use of text messaging and email as reminders. These types of reminders are now used in addition to phone calls and letters. Prevention counseling is most effective if provided in a nonjudgmental and empathetic manner appropriate to the person's culture, language, gender, sexual orientation, age, and developmental level.
Prevention counseling for STIs is usually offered to all sexually active adolescents and to all adults who have received a diagnosis, have had an STI in the past year, or have multiple sex partners. Such interactive counseling, which can be resource intensive, is directed at a person's risk, the situations in which risk occurs, and the use of personalized goal-setting strategies. The development of vaccines to protect against gonorrhea is ongoing.
Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STIs. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted", but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact. This can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when presenting open, bleeding wounds. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through the pores in natural skin condoms, but are still too large to pass through latex or synthetic condoms.
Putting the condom on snug can and often leads to failure. Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier Avoiding inverting or spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not If a user attempts to unroll the condom, but realizes they have it on the wrong side, then this condom may not be effective Being careful with the condom if handling it with long nails Avoiding the use of oil-based lubricants or anything with oil in it with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STIs, the old condom and its contents are be assumed to be infectious.
Therefore, the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom is used for each act of intercourse, as multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the effectiveness as a barrier. Trials, however, have found it ineffective  and it may put women at a higher risk of HIV infection. The CDC recommends that sexually active women under the age of 25 and those over 25 at risk should be screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea yearly.
Appropriate times for screening are during regular pelvic examinations and preconception evaluations.
No procedure tests for all infectious agents. STI tests may be used for a number of reasons: There is often a window period after initial infection during which an STI test will be negative. During this period, the infection may be transmissible. The duration of this period varies depending on the infection and the test. Diagnosis may also be delayed by reluctance of the infected person to seek a medical professional.
One report indicated that people turn to the Internet rather than to a medical professional for information on STIs to a higher degree than for other sexual problems.