Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, born , April 2, Scranton, Pennsylvania, graduate of Pennsylvania State University, small textile supply owner; died, April 7, , in Little Rock, Arkansas The second of three sons, Hugh Rodham was the first in his family to attend and graduate from college, able to attend Penn State University on a football scholarship. Upon graduation, he found work as a travelling salesman of drapery fabrics through the upper-Midwest. He met Dorothy Howell, who was working as a company clerk typist and after a lengthy courtship they married and moved into a one-bedroom Chicago apartment.
Navy, stationed at the Great Lakes Naval Station, an hour outside of Chicago, where he worked as a chief petty officer. He oversaw sailor training. After the war, he began his own small, independent drape and fabric printing business in downtown Chicago. He assumed responsibility for his younger brother, Russell, a former physician who suffered from mental depression. Gruff, often highly critical of his children as a way to encourage their improvement in school grades and behavior, he taught Hillary the habits of hard work and study and that one had to earn success.
Extremely thrifty, he also taught his children to never waste even the smallest amount of anything from food to toothpaste. Beyond what might be considered a traditional closeness with her mother, Hillary Clinton has described Dorothy Rodham as a crucial figure in life, not just a mentor and role model but one who had a story that sparked part of her lifelong mission on behalf of children's rights and protection.
Were it not for the care, direction and attention from a neighborhood woman who Dorothy worked for as a "mother's helper," it is unlikely the young girl would have developed a sense of her own potential.
Poised to begin college in California, her mother contacted her, asking her to return to Chicago, where she had remarried, promising to pay for her education. When Dorothy returned, however, she discovered that her mother intended to have her work for free as a housekeeper and would not underwrite her higher education as promised.
In California, she also witnessed the effect of racial bigotry on her fellow students who were Japanese-American. It left her with a rigorous sense of justice and recognition of how many children experienced disadvantage and discrimination from birth. She taught Hillary and her sons that they were no less or more important than any other human beings. Although denied the chance for a college education, Dorothy would take many college courses during her adulthood.
She also read voraciously as a way of teaching herself about the larger world. The impact of her mother's early life proved to be of enormous influence on young Hillary Rodham's perception of parenting and childcare. As a mother, Dorothy inculcated her daughter and sons to never permit others to bully them and to defend themselves. She also passed on her belief that gender was no barrier to any potential endeavor, and that it was right to expect, and fight for equal treatment as a right.
Her maternal great-grandparents, the Howells, were immigrants from England and settled in California. Her maternal grandmother, Della Murray migrated from Canada to Illinois and married secondly to Max Rosenberg who was born in Russia in Eldest of three; two brothers, Hugh E. In being raised within the original tenets of Methodism as preached by its founder, John Wesley, Hillary Clinton's faith inculcated her with a sense of duty towards not just those in need in her community but also those in the world at large.
She was baptized in the parish of her paternal ancestors, the Court Street Methodist Church in Scranton, Pennsylvania. In , her First United Methodist Church of Park Ridge's youth group was led by a new youth minister, Don Jones, who introduced the students to the "University of Life," that encouraged them into social action as a way of enacting the Methodist ideology.
Jones would lead the group outside the comfort zone of their middle-class, white suburban neighborhood into areas of need and where they found ways to volunteer in community service. Discussions on matters of racial equality and social justice permanently altered her consciousness about the larger world and the problems within it.
In grade school, Hillary Rodham was an eager student lucky to have attentive and imaginative teachers, and she wrote an autobiography and co-wrote and produced a play about an imaginary trip to Europe. She also won her first "election" in these years, as a co-captain of the safety patrol. She also succeeded academically, becoming a National Honor Society member, joining a debating society, and being elected to student council and as the junior class vice president.
She later reflected on how influential Paul Carlson, her ninth-grade history teacher had been on her thinking about individualism and the rights of each person to determine their own fate, in the context of that era's anti-communism that was a large part of the agenda of the conservative wing of the Republican Party.
As part of an effort to create greater understanding among divisive sub-groups within her high school, she was asked by the principal to serve on a "Cultural Values Committee. Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, As Senior Class president, Hillary Clinton became the first student speaker at graduation, addressing the audience of faculty, graduates, their families, and guests in a speech that made national news.
Here is an audio recording of that speech: Yale Child Study Center, Upon graduating from law school, Hillary Rodham took a post-graduate year of study on children, exploring issues of early childhood development, child abuse, and medical-related matters. She also worked as a research assistant to the center's director, Dr.
At the age of three years old, Hillary moved with her parents from their downtown Chicago apartment to a home in the booming, postwar suburb of Park Ridge. She was an active child, joining the Brownies and Girl Scouts, a girl's baseball team, and was often out biking, swimming and skating. Even as a young girl, much of the diligence she would show later in her professional life were in evidence. In , she organized backyard carnivals, sport competitions and gaming contests to raise money to raise funds, by nickels and dimes, on behalf of a local United Way campaign.
It led to her first bit of publicity, appearing in a local newspaper photograph with other children handing over a paper bag of the money they raised. Hillary Rodham also worked as a babysitter both after school and during her vacation breaks, sometimes watching the children of migrant Mexicans brought to the Chicago area for itinerant work.
Ambitious at one point to become an astronaut, she wrote to NASA and received a response that stunned her when she was informed that women were not accepted for the astronaut program.
Influenced by her father's strong loyalty to the Republican Party, Hillary Rodham was active in a young Republican group. She actively campaigned for Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater in Also influenced by her mother, who was a Democratic, she was inspired to work in some form of public service after hearing a speech in Chicago by Reverend Martin Luther King. In the summer of , she was accepted into the Wellesley Internship Program in Washington, for nine weeks, assigned to work as an intern for the House Republican Conference.
She was then invited by Goodell to continue working as an intern on behalf of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller's last-minute presidential bid at the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida.
She attended the convention and watched as Richard Nixon was nominated for the presidency by his party. In her senior year, she researched and wrote a thesis on Chicago community organizer Saul Alinsky.
Although she agreed with his premise that the disadvantaged of society had to be empowered to help themselves, she did not agree that social change came about best from working outside the establishment but rather from within. Although he offered her a chance to work with him after she graduated, Hillary Rodham decided instead to attend law school and work from within the system. She also worked at various jobs during her summers as a college student. In , for example, she spent the summer washing dishes at a Denali National Park restaurant and sliming and boxing salmons in a canning factory in Valdez, Alaska fish factory.
In , she secured a grant and first went to work for what would become the Children's Defense Fund. Part of her research work that summer involved the concurrent Senate hearings held by Senator Walter Mondale's Minnesota Democrat subcommittee on migrant workers, researching migrant problems in housing, sanitation, health and education.
Upon her return to Yale Law School, Miss Rodham determined to commit her focus to studying the law and how it affected children. On the final day of her law classes in the spring of , she met fellow law student Bill Clinton from Arkansas and had their first date by going to the Yale Art Gallery to see a Mark Rothko exhibit.
Bill Clinton, already declaring his love for her, followed Hillary Rodham and they lived in Berkeley, near the University of California campus. Upon graduation from law school, she served as staff attorney for the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In the summer of , however, she joined Bill Clinton, living in a series of western states working for the Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern's campaign.
In and , while simultaneously working at the New Haven Legal Services during her post-graduate year at the Yale Child Study Center, she became exposed to severe cases of child neglect and abuse.
The convergence of this work led her to help draft the legal process that the medical staff of the Yale-New Haven Hospital would use in dealing with cases where child abuse was suspected. The article explored the sensitive issues involving to what degree judicial and legal powers should intervene in cases of child abuse and neglect. In the spring of , she returned to Washington as a member of the presidential impeachment inquiry staff advising the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives during the Watergate Scandal.
With Nixon's resignation in August of that year, the need for the continued work ceased. Although her education, legal and professional experience led to her being given a number of choices at well-paying and established New York and Washington law firms, she decided to instead "follow my heart" and go to the small-town of Fayetteville, Arkansas where her boyfriend Bill Clinton was working as a law professor at the University of Arkansas Law School. Hillary Rodham also joined the law school faculty there as assistant professor of law.
While they were dating, Bill Clinton secretly purchased a small house in Fayetteville that she had noticed and remarked that she had liked. When he proposed marriage to her and she accepted, he revealed that they owned the house. Their modest wedding ceremony and reception were held in their new home.
They married and lived here, briefly. Following Bill Clinton's election in as state attorney general, the couple relocated to the state capital of Little Rock, Arkansas. In , the newly married Hillary Clinton attended that year's Democratic National Convention in New York, which nominated Jimmy Carter as the party's presidential candidate.
Carter asked Bill Clinton to head his campaign in Arkansas and asked Hillary Clinton to work as field coordinator in Indiana. After the couple took a two week vacation in Europe, she relocated to Indianapolis to work for Carter's campaign.
A year after her marriage, Hillary Clinton, retaining her maiden name for work, accepted an offer to join the Rose Law Firm in Little Rock, Arkansas becoming the old, established firm's first woman partner. In , she became a full partner at the Rose Law Firm. In , Bill Clinton was elected to the first of five of non-consecutive terms as Governor of Arkansas and Hillary Clinton, while retaining her job as an attorney, became the state's First Lady. Shortly after the gubernatorial inauguration, she granted a local television interview about her new life: Iframe Finding a balance between the expected concessions to a far more traditional woman's role as the spouse of a governor in a southern state, yet remain genuine in terms of her own professional interests and pursuits was a difficult challenge for Hillary.
She ceased using her maiden name exclusively Along with her public duties, work as an attorney, wife and mother, in , she also assumed a further public commitment, accepting the offer of President Carter of appointment to the Legal Services Corporation.
As First Lady of Arkansas for twelve years, she chaired the Arkansas Educational Standards Committee, conducting county studies on teacher performance and student testing, and offering recommendations for overhauling the state system. Here is an excerpt of her introducing the issue of education from that time: Clinton wrote a weekly newspaper column entitled "Talking It Over. During the Democratic primaries, several incidents occurred which proved to be the primary basis for much of the controversy and criticism that would be leveled at Hillary Clinton as First Lady.
During a debate of the spring primary season, former California Governor Jerry Brown challenged Governor Clinton with suggestions that Hillary Clinton's work as an attorney involved state funds and was unethical, hinting in general terms that she had somehow profited from her husband's position. Clinton himself remarked at the time that his wife would be a full partner if he became President, terming it a "two for one" deal.
Finally, in response to some of these questions, Hillary Clinton sharply retorted to a journalist's question at a public appearance that was being covered by broadcast media that the only way a working attorney who happened to also be the governor's wife could have avoided any controversy would have been if she had "stayed home and baked cookies.
The controversy about Hillary Clinton becoming potentially the first First Lady who maintained a professional career while simultaneously working as a mother became the initial spark that led to a history of her as a recipient of oppositional press. In a lighter tone, Family Circle magazine sponsored a cookie contest asking readers to vote for their choice of recipes used by the wives of the two presidential candidates, Barbara Bush and Hillary Clinton. The "cookie contest," as much a tongue-in-cheek tradition as one involving actual recipes, has remained a staple of the quadrennial political race.
Iframe Republican Party supporters who depicted her as the antithesis of "family values," a popular phrase of the GOP during the campaign further fueled the controversy about Hillary Clinton becoming a presidential spouse. At the Republican National Convention, conservative leader Pat Buchanan and vice-presidential spouse Marilyn Quayle referenced her article "Children Under the Law" in a way that suggested that she advocated an "ant-family" agenda of denying parental rights over children.
Hillary Clinton did not address the National Democratic Convention in Four years later, however, as the incumbent First Lady, she gave a speech at the National Democratic Convention that struck a tone both personal and political, underlining some of the Administration's policy gains and its intentions for greater health care and education for children, and greater equality for women.
During the post-convention presidential campaign, however, Hillary Clinton assumed a highly active and overtly political role as a surrogate for the candidate, capable of discussing the details of legislative intentions her husband hoped to initiate as President, and providing statistical and other data to make her case, doing so not from notes but memory.