Madras Presidency At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established governance over entire Tamil Nadu. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company , predating the Indian Rebellion of by half a century.
During the administration of Governor George Harris — measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act and Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famine in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of —78 and the Indian famine of — The famine led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora.
India —present [ edit ] When India became independent in , Madras presidency became Madras state , comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north west and Andhra Pradesh to the north.
To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation.
The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions. Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest coastline at about Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.
The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall: Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.
Flora and fauna[ edit ] There are about species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including elephants , tigers , leopards , wild dogs , sloth bears , gaurs , lion-tailed macaques , Nilgiri langurs , Nilgiri tahrs , grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer , resident and migratory birds such as cormorants , darters , herons , egrets , open-billed storks , spoonbills and white ibises , little grebes , Indian moorhen , black-winged stilts , a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans , marine species such as the dugongs , turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.
This includes species of medicinal plants , endemic species, species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and red-listed species. The Gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes species of which Tamil Nadu has about species. Vast numbers of bryophytes , lichen , fungi, algae and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu. Common plant species include the state tree: Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ebony Diospyros nilagrica , Habenaria rariflora orchid , Alsophila , Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and royal fern.
Protected areas of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu has a wide range of Biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries , salt marshes , mangroves , Seagrasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.
The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrassrass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests. Governance and administration[ edit ] Main articles: Palaniswami  and Indira Banerjee  respectively.
Administratively the state is divided into 32 district. Chennai formerly known as Madras is the state capital. It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan cities of India.
The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and Legislative Assembly constituencies. The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by Edappadi K. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. It is the fifth largest state police force in India as of , total police force of TN is 1,11, and has the highest proportion of women police personnel in the country total women police personnel of TN is 13, which is about