Relative dating of rocks ppt. Volcanology of Canada.



Relative dating of rocks ppt

Relative dating of rocks ppt

Eruption styles and volcano formations[ edit ] Eruption types and examples Hawaiian eruptions Hawaiian eruption: Hawaiian eruption Hawaiian eruptions are passive eruptions characterized by effusive emission of highly fluid basalt lavas with low gas contents.

Like other Hawaiian eruptions, the relative volume of ejected pyroclastic material is less than that of all other eruption types. The main phenomenons during Hawaiian eruptions is steady lava fountaining and the production of thin lava flows that eventually build up into large, broad shield volcanoes.

Eruptions are also common in central vents near the summit of shield volcanoes, and along linear volcanic vents radiating outward from the summit area. Lava advances downslope away from their source vents in lava channels and lava tubes. Eve Cone , one of the best preserved cinder cones in Canada. In Canada, cinder cones form when lava fountains release fragments of lava that harden in the air and fall around a linear volcanic vent.

The rock fragments, often known as cinder or scoria , are glassy and contain gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly. Some of the lava is not fragmented and flows from the vent as a lava flow.

As lava lakes solidify, they create a grey-silver crust that is usually only a few centimeters thick. Active lava lakes comprise young crust that is repeatedly destroyed and regenerated.

Convective motion of the underlying lava causes the crust to break into slabs and sink. This then exposes new lava at the surface that cools into a new crustal layer which will again fracture into slabs and be recycled into the circulating lava beneath the crust. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions Phreatic eruption: Phreatic eruption and Phreatomagmatic eruption Phreatic eruptions occur when rising magma makes contact with ground or surface water.

If magma is included, the term phreatomagmatic may be used. Phreatomagmatic eruptions occasionally create broad, low-relief volcanic craters called maars. Subglacial eruption Subglacial eruptions occur when lava erupts under large portions of glacial ice. As lava erupts under a large glacier, the heat of the lava would immediately start to melt the overlying glacial ice to produce meltwater.

Submarine eruption Submarine eruptions are eruptions that occur underwater. Pillow lavas more than two billion years old indicate large submarine volcanoes existed during the early stages of the Earth's formation. Plinian eruption Plinian eruptions are large explosive eruptions that form pyroclastic flows and enormous dark columns of tephra and gas that commonly rise into the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere.

In some cases, a basaltic shield volcano may have periods of explosive activity to form a stratovolcano mounted on top of the shield volcano. Volcanic winters are caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun's light, usually after a volcanic eruption. The first volcanic winter in , known as the Year Without a Summer , affected the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In February , a fire swept through St.

Bladed olivine crystals are visible, though spinifex texture is weak or absent in this sample. The hotspot made a dome that covered the Lake Superior area. The source for this volcanism was a long-lived and stationary area of molten rock called the New England or Great Meteor hotspot.

During the formation of the Fundy Basin, volcanic activity never stopped as shown by the going eruption of lava along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; an underwater volcanic mountain range in the Atlantic Ocean formed as a result of continuous seafloor spreading between eastern North America and northwestern Africa. The Fogo Seamounts could have formed along fracture zones in the Atlantic seafloor because of the large number of seamounts on the North American continental shelf.

Their flatness is due to coastal erosion, such as waves and winds. Volcanology of Western Canada The Flin Flon greenstone belt in central Manitoba and east-central Saskatchewan is a collage of deformed volcanic arc rocks ranging in age from 1, to 1, million years old during the Paleoproterozoic sub-division of the Precambrian eon. The Cretaceous period million years ago was a period for active kimberlite volcanism in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Geology of the Pacific Northwest Plate tectonics of the Intermontane Islands arc million years ago. The Canadian portion of the Pacific Northwest began forming during the early Jurassic period when a group of active volcanic islands collided against a pre-existing continental margin and coastline of Western Canada. After the sedimentary and igneous rocks were folded and crushed, it resulted in the creation of a new continental shelf and coastline.

When this change was completed, Coast Range Arc volcanism returned and sections of the arc were uplifted considerably in latest Cretaceous time. At least four volcanic formations along the British Columbia Coast are associated with Cascadia subduction zone volcanism. This rupture created the two small Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates that lie off the west coast of Vancouver Island.

Summits left to right are Pyroclastic Peak and Mount Cayley. The four-million-year-old Garibaldi Volcanic Belt , a north-south trending zone of volcanoes and volcanic rock in the southern Coast Mountains of southwestern British Columbia, can be grouped into at least three enechelon segments, referred to as the northern, central, and southern segments.

When the Farallon Plate ruptured to create the Nootka Fault between five and seven million years ago, there were some apparent changes along the Cascadia subduction zone. At issue is the current plate configuration and rate of subduction but based on rock composition is for Silverthrone Caldera and Franklin Glacier Complex to be subduction related.

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relative age of rocks



Relative dating of rocks ppt

Eruption styles and volcano formations[ edit ] Eruption types and examples Hawaiian eruptions Hawaiian eruption: Hawaiian eruption Hawaiian eruptions are passive eruptions characterized by effusive emission of highly fluid basalt lavas with low gas contents. Like other Hawaiian eruptions, the relative volume of ejected pyroclastic material is less than that of all other eruption types. The main phenomenons during Hawaiian eruptions is steady lava fountaining and the production of thin lava flows that eventually build up into large, broad shield volcanoes.

Eruptions are also common in central vents near the summit of shield volcanoes, and along linear volcanic vents radiating outward from the summit area. Lava advances downslope away from their source vents in lava channels and lava tubes. Eve Cone , one of the best preserved cinder cones in Canada.

In Canada, cinder cones form when lava fountains release fragments of lava that harden in the air and fall around a linear volcanic vent. The rock fragments, often known as cinder or scoria , are glassy and contain gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly.

Some of the lava is not fragmented and flows from the vent as a lava flow. As lava lakes solidify, they create a grey-silver crust that is usually only a few centimeters thick. Active lava lakes comprise young crust that is repeatedly destroyed and regenerated. Convective motion of the underlying lava causes the crust to break into slabs and sink. This then exposes new lava at the surface that cools into a new crustal layer which will again fracture into slabs and be recycled into the circulating lava beneath the crust.

Phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions Phreatic eruption: Phreatic eruption and Phreatomagmatic eruption Phreatic eruptions occur when rising magma makes contact with ground or surface water. If magma is included, the term phreatomagmatic may be used. Phreatomagmatic eruptions occasionally create broad, low-relief volcanic craters called maars. Subglacial eruption Subglacial eruptions occur when lava erupts under large portions of glacial ice.

As lava erupts under a large glacier, the heat of the lava would immediately start to melt the overlying glacial ice to produce meltwater. Submarine eruption Submarine eruptions are eruptions that occur underwater. Pillow lavas more than two billion years old indicate large submarine volcanoes existed during the early stages of the Earth's formation.

Plinian eruption Plinian eruptions are large explosive eruptions that form pyroclastic flows and enormous dark columns of tephra and gas that commonly rise into the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere.

In some cases, a basaltic shield volcano may have periods of explosive activity to form a stratovolcano mounted on top of the shield volcano. Volcanic winters are caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun's light, usually after a volcanic eruption.

The first volcanic winter in , known as the Year Without a Summer , affected the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In February , a fire swept through St. Bladed olivine crystals are visible, though spinifex texture is weak or absent in this sample. The hotspot made a dome that covered the Lake Superior area. The source for this volcanism was a long-lived and stationary area of molten rock called the New England or Great Meteor hotspot. During the formation of the Fundy Basin, volcanic activity never stopped as shown by the going eruption of lava along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; an underwater volcanic mountain range in the Atlantic Ocean formed as a result of continuous seafloor spreading between eastern North America and northwestern Africa.

The Fogo Seamounts could have formed along fracture zones in the Atlantic seafloor because of the large number of seamounts on the North American continental shelf. Their flatness is due to coastal erosion, such as waves and winds.

Volcanology of Western Canada The Flin Flon greenstone belt in central Manitoba and east-central Saskatchewan is a collage of deformed volcanic arc rocks ranging in age from 1, to 1, million years old during the Paleoproterozoic sub-division of the Precambrian eon. The Cretaceous period million years ago was a period for active kimberlite volcanism in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Geology of the Pacific Northwest Plate tectonics of the Intermontane Islands arc million years ago. The Canadian portion of the Pacific Northwest began forming during the early Jurassic period when a group of active volcanic islands collided against a pre-existing continental margin and coastline of Western Canada.

After the sedimentary and igneous rocks were folded and crushed, it resulted in the creation of a new continental shelf and coastline.

When this change was completed, Coast Range Arc volcanism returned and sections of the arc were uplifted considerably in latest Cretaceous time. At least four volcanic formations along the British Columbia Coast are associated with Cascadia subduction zone volcanism. This rupture created the two small Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates that lie off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Summits left to right are Pyroclastic Peak and Mount Cayley. The four-million-year-old Garibaldi Volcanic Belt , a north-south trending zone of volcanoes and volcanic rock in the southern Coast Mountains of southwestern British Columbia, can be grouped into at least three enechelon segments, referred to as the northern, central, and southern segments.

When the Farallon Plate ruptured to create the Nootka Fault between five and seven million years ago, there were some apparent changes along the Cascadia subduction zone. At issue is the current plate configuration and rate of subduction but based on rock composition is for Silverthrone Caldera and Franklin Glacier Complex to be subduction related.

Relative dating of rocks ppt

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5 Comments

  1. With the coming of heavy industry, such ideas gave way to the financially convenient reduction of the Earth to the status of a lifeless resource. While speaking in to members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and some Seventies prior to their leaving for missionary service, the Prophet Joseph Smith said: Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating?

  2. All the possible cases of degeneracy for binary and ternary systems are described in this paper.

  3. A warm breeze through a relatively cool orchard, for instance. Then a flood came and the inhabitants of the world, with the exception of a very few, were swept from it, after the Gospel had been preached to all who then lived and all had had an opportunity to believe in and obey it.

  4. The monocots have an embryo with a single cotyledon seed leaf , three-part flowers, parallel leaf veins, and adventitious root growth.

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