B1; probable human carcinogen. Based on limited evidence in humans, and sufficient evidence in animals. Human data include nine studies that show statistically significant associations between site-specific respiratory neoplasms and exposure to formaldehyde or formaldehyde-containing products. An increased incidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas was observed in long-term inhalation studies in rats and in mice.
The classification is supported by in vitro genotoxicity data and formaldehyde's structural relationships to other carcinogenic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde. There is limited evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2A.
The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Toxicology of the Eye. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Symptoms related to inhalation include: The International Technical Information Institute, With higher concn, cough, dysphagia, bronchitis, pneumonia, edema or spasm of the larynx. Pulmonary edema is uncommon. Difficult micturition, hematuria, anuria. Death due to respiratory failure.
Strong solutions produce coagulation necrosis. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Williams and Wilkins, It can exert a small, across-shift effect on airways but after a mean exposure of 10 yr does not appear to cause permanent respiratory impairment. The questionnaires were given to a cohort of 1st-yr medical students on completion of the gross anatomy lab course. Air sampling of formaldehyde levels in the anatomy labs was carried out on one day during the time in which these students were conducting dissections.
Although the results of the air sampling showed formaldehyde levels to be well below current occupational standards, significant numbers of students reported experiencing symptoms associated with formaldehyde exposure. Estimates of the relative risk of experiencing formaldehyde-related symptoms in the anatomy laboratories compared to the control laboratories ranged from 2.
In addn, it was found that female students were 3 times more likely to report formaldehyde-related symptoms than male students. Logistic regression was used to estimate exposure odds ratios STET while taking into account multiple risk factors for each site. Several limitations in the study tend to conservatively bias the results. The protocol consisted of randomized exposure of each subject to clean air or 3. Potential hazardous workplace exposures varied with department and included Mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected for each tannery.
Deaths from cancer of each site, including the lung, were also lower than expected compared to those of either the population of the United States or of local state rates. A significant excess of deaths was observed, however, due to accidental causes in one tannery and cirrhosis of the liver, suicide, and alcoholism in the other.
These excesses did not appear to be casually associated with occupational exposures. The incorporation of labeled thymidine by T-cells phytohemagglutin was decreased: The probable mean lethal adult dose is 1 to 2 oz.
Death may occur within 3 hours; survival past 48 hours usually means recovery. Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Results from both were unremarkable, as were tests mapping their visual fields. Subjective reports of eye irritation on the day of testing did not correlate, or correlated negatively, with formaldehyde concns on the test day, which averaged 0.
Some of the changes reached traditional levels of statistical significance. With these caveats, this study suggests that mean formaldehyde exposures at 0. Neurotoxicity of Industrial and Commercial Chemicals. Conjunctivitis, corneal burns; brownish discoloration of skin; dermatitis, urticaria hives , pustulovesicular eruption. Workers often complained of severe eye, nose, and upper respiratory tract irritation. The solvents were adsorbed in a charcoal tube, desorbed with carbon-disulfide or dimethylformamide, and analyzed by gas chromatography.
All highly exposed workers were monitored. The widest range of formaldehyde concentration was recorded in the operation of the curtain painting furniture receiving operation, which was between 0. The mean concentrations of most organic solvents studied ranged from 4 to 66 ppm.
Information on job history for cases and controls was derived from a national data linkage system and exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed by industrial hygienists unaware of the case control status of the patients. The exposure rates for formaldehyde among male and female controls were 4. After proper adjustment for contemporary wood dust exposure, relative risk of 2. Although the overall standardized mortality ration was significantly elevated in subjects exposed to formaldehyde, the overall risk did not incr with increasing intensity of exposure.
This excess was clearly located in factory-A. A follow-up study of factory-A that added 5 more years of follow-up was initiated. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed.
These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic in man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Normal, nonsmoking, methacholine-nonreactive subjects were exposed to 2 hr each of clean air, 3 ppm formaldehyde, 0.
A nasal biopsy specimen was graded from according to the morphological changes. The histological grading showed a significantly higher score when compared with unexposed controls 2. The comparisons consisted of 36 local government clerks. The formaldehyde group was exposed to 0. Annual formaldehyde exposures of the comparisons averaged 0. Symptoms of nasal obstruction and watery discharges were more frequent in the exposed subjects than in the comparisons. More pronounced nasal swelling was found in the cohort than in the comparisons.
Both exposed groups had a reduced sense of smell. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased in the exposed groups. A population of physicians with occupational formaldehyde exposure participated in the study. The occurrence of these types of cancers was 4. Pathologists and other members of the study group were exposed to other chemicals and infectious agents as well as formaldehyde. There was an apparent excess of mortality from pancreatic cancer and brain cancers as well as leukemia.
Formaldehyde measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1 wk periods. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to formaldehyde below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: The initial forced expiratory volume in 1 sec was within 0. The rate of decline showed the expected association with smoking in the unexposed group, but in the exposed group the mean rate of decline in the never smokers was similar to that in current smokers.
Thus there is no evidence from this study of an excess of respiratory symptoms or decline in lung function in the workers exposed to formaldehyde.
The 40 year old woman developed bronchospasm and laryngospasm following the inhalation of formaldehyde vapor. A year later she accidentally entered a hospital room relatively soon after it had been disinfected, and was hospitalized with dyspnea, cyanosis, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm. The following were determined for all groups: When compared with the controls, the patients had significantly higer antibody titers to formaldehyde-human serum albumin.
Immune activation, autoantibodies, and anti formaldehyde-human serum albumin antibodies are associated with long-term formaldehyde inhalation.
When the staff were concerned in sterilizing during their pregnancy the frequency was A dose-response relationship was found between exposure to formaldehyde and decrease in lung function. Industrial exposure to formaldehyde causes transient lung function impairment over a work shift, with a cumulative effect over the years. The impairment, however, can be reversed with 4 wk of no exposure. Ambient measurements taken in the plant between and documented a potential for exposure to levels of formaldehyde as high or greater than 3.
Vital status was ascertained for A statistically significant increase in lung cancer was observed, based on 18 deaths, which was not fully accounted for by possible confounding factors linked to personal habits or sociocultural characteristics.
This elevated risk, however, could not be attributed specifically to exposure to formaldehyde. Mortality from digestive cancer 14 deaths observed and hematologic neoplasms 5 deaths observed was not substantially higher than expected. Whether formaldehyde enhances the effects of other DNA-damaging agents has not yet been evaluated. Environmental and Occupational Medicine.
Little, Brown and Company, Formaldehyde exposure may be followed by the development of anti-N-like antibodies probably as a result of reaction with the dissolved form of formaldehyde, methylene glycol. The anti-N-like antibodies are also found following exposure to sodium hypochlorite.
The sensory irritant effect of formaldehyde at 1.