It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus, the city is famous for its gardens, waterfronts and houseboats. The Burzahom archaeological site located 10 km from Srinagar has revealed the presence of neolithic and megalithic cultures, according to Kalhanas 12th century text Rajatarangini, a king named Pravarasena II established a new capital named Pravarapura.
Based on topographical details, Pravarapura appears to be same as the city of Srinagar. Aurel Stein dates the king to 6th century, Kalhana also mentions that a king named Ashoka had earlier established a town called Srinagari.
Kalhana describes this town in terms, stating that it had 9,, houses resplendent with wealth. According to Kalhana, this Ashoka reigned before BCE, and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara, Kalhana also states that this king had adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, and appeased Bhutesha to obtain his son Jalauka. Multiple scholars identify Kalhanas Ashoka with the 3rd century Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka despite these discrepancies, although Jina is a term generally associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha.
Romila Thapar equates Jalauka to Kunala, stating that Jalauka is an erroneous spelling caused by an error in Brahmi script. Ashokas Srinagari is generally identified with Pandrethan, although there is an identification with a place on the banks of the Lidder River. Smith, the original name of the old town was transferred to the new town. In , the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore, Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until as one of several princely states in British India.
The Maharajas choose Sher Garhi Palace as their main Srinagar residence, after India and Pakistans independence from Britain, villagers around the city of Poonch began an armed protest at continued rule of the Maharaja on 17 August The Accession was accepted by India the next day, the government of India immediately airlifted Indian troops to Srinagar and prevented the tribesmen from reaching the city 2.
It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh, the state has special autonomy under Article of the Constitution of India. A part of the erstwhile Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, the western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since Srinagar is the capital, and Jammu is the winter capital.
Jammu and Kashmir is the state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The Kashmir valley is famous for its mountainous landscape.
Ladakh, also known as Little Tibet, is renowned for its remote mountain beauty, Maharaja Hari Singh became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in , and he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority, following the logic of Partition, many people in Pakistan expected that Kashmir would join Pakistan.
However, the predominant political movement in the Valley of Kashmir was secular, so many in India too had expectations that Kashmir would join India. The Maharaja was faced with indecision, on 22 October , rebellious citizens from the western districts of the State and Pushtoon tribesmen from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan invaded the State, backed by Pakistan.
The Maharaja initially fought back but appealed for assistance to the India, Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October in return for military aid and assistance, which was accepted by the Governor General the next day. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to evict the raiders, the resulting Indo-Pakistani War of lasted till the end of At the beginning of , India took the matter to the United Nations Security Council, a ceasefire was agreed on 1 January , supervised by UN observers.
A special United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan was set up to negotiate the arrangements as per the Security Council resolution. The UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between and , trying to find a solution agreeable to both India and Pakistan and it passed a resolution in August proposing a three-part process. It was accepted by India but effectively rejected by Pakistan, in the end, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first, and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards.
No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarisation, India and Pakistan fought two further wars in and 3. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast.
Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed.
Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the midth century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the midth under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in , the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.
Following market-based economic reforms in , India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations.
India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.
The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations.
Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety 4.
Mumbai — Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In , Mumbai was named a world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India.
The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies, during the midth century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development, during the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement.
Upon Indias independence in the city was incorporated into Bombay State, in , following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. The city also houses Indias Hindi and Marathi film and television industry, Mumbais business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.
This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning good little bay, in , Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu, Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial diwan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai. By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, the Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November According to Slate magazine, they argued that Bombay was a corrupted English version of Mumbai, Slate also said The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region.
A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in the Marathi language, the term has been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai.
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands, Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli and it is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited 5.
Maharashtra — Four Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is Indias second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
It is the wealthiest Indian state and it is also the worlds second-most populous sub-national entity. It has over million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population of approximately 18 million, Nagpur is Maharashtras second capital as well as its winter capital.
Maharashtras business opportunities along with its potential to offer a standard of living attract migrants from all over India. Ancient and medieval Maharashtra included the empires of the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Mughals, the major rivers of the state are Godavari, and Krishna.
The state has several popular Hindu places of pilgrimage including Pandharpur, Dehu and Alandi, other places that attract pilgrims from other parts of India and beyond include Hazur Sahib Gurudwara at Nanded, Sai Baba shrine at Shirdi and Dikshabhumi at Nagpur.
Major industries include chemical products, electrical and non-electrical machinery, textiles, petroleum, Jai Maharashtra The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, and the word Mahratta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri, Marathi and Maratha may have derived from the same root, however, their exact etymology is uncertain. But the Marathas as a people do not seem to be mentioned before the thirteenth or fourteenth century, the most widely accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra ultimately derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika.
The word rashtrika is a Sanskritized form of Ratta, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. However, this theory has not found acceptance among scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of later writers. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni, in 90 CE Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty, made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom.
Model person — A model is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.
Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be modelling. Types of modelling include, fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, Models are featured in a variety of media formats including, books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV.
Fashion models are featured in films, reality TV shows. Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, modelling as a profession was first established in by Charles Frederick Worth, the father of haute couture, when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term house model was coined to describe this type of work, eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, with the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling.
Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late s, one of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the s. Fonssagrives appeared on over Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community, compared to todays models, the models of the s were more voluptuous.
Wilhelmina Coopers measurements were whereas Chanel Imans measurements are , in the s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models agents charging them weekly rates for their messages, for the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a persons earnings, with the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model.
Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries, in the s, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay and they would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas 7.
Actor — An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film, radio, and television.
Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys.
The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is also used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the —s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor — I can play anything. In , the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients.