Short codes[ edit ] Short codes are special telephone numbers, shorter than full telephone numbers, that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones. There are two types of short codes: Text messaging gateway providers[ edit ] SMS gateway providers facilitate the SMS traffic between businesses and mobile subscribers, being mainly responsible for carrying mission-critical messages, SMS for enterprises, content delivery and entertainment services involving SMS, e.
Considering SMS messaging performance and cost, as well as the level of text messaging services, SMS gateway providers can be classified as resellers of the text messaging capability of another provider's SMSC or offering the text messaging capability as an operator of their own SMSC with SS7. Many operate text-in services on shortcodes or mobile number ranges, whereas others use lower-cost geographic text-in numbers.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message SMS is widely used for delivering digital content, such as news alerts, financial information, pictures, GIFs, logos and ringtones.
Such messages are also known as premium-rated short messages PSMS. In November , amidst complaints about unsolicited charges on bills, major mobile carriers in the US agreed to stop billing for PSMS in 45 states, effectively ending its use in the United States. For example, some vending machines now allow payment by sending a premium-rated short message, so that the cost of the item bought is added to the user's phone bill or subtracted from the user's prepaid credits.
Recently, premium messaging companies have come under fire from consumer groups due to a large number of consumers racking up huge phone bills. A new type of free-premium or hybrid-premium content has emerged with the launch of text-service websites.
These sites allow registered users to receive free text messages when items they are interested in go on sale, or when new items are introduced. An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers international mobile number format, e.
Long numbers are internationally available, as well as enabling businesses to have their own number, rather than short codes, which are usually shared across a lot of brands. Additionally, Long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers. In workplaces[ edit ] The use of text messaging for workplace purposes has grown significantly during the mids decade.
As companies seek competitive advantages, many employees are using new technology, collaborative applications, and real-time messaging such as SMS, instant messaging , and mobile communications to connect with teammates and customers. Some practical uses of text messaging include the use of SMS for confirming delivery or other tasks, for instant communication between a service provider and a client e.
Several universities have implemented a system of texting students and faculties campus alerts. One such example is Penn State. One regulation specifically governing the use of text messaging in financial-services firms engaged in stocks, equities, and securities trading is Regulatory Notice , Supervision of Electronic Communications, December , issued to member firms by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. In , FINRA noted that "electronic communications", "e-mail", and "electronic correspondence" may be used interchangeably and can include such forms of electronic messaging as instant messaging and text messaging.
Security, confidentiality, reliability and speed of SMS are among the most important guarantees industries such as financial services, energy and commodities trading, health care and enterprises demand in their mission-critical procedures. By providing measurable SLAs, corporations can define reliability parameters and set up a high quality of their services. Typical business-to-business applications are telematics and Machine-to-Machine , in which two applications automatically communicate with each other.
Incident alerts are also common, and staff communications are also another use for B2B scenarios. Businesses can use SMS for time-critical alerts, updates and reminders, mobile campaigns, content and entertainment applications. Mobile interaction can also be used for consumer-to-business interactions, such as media voting and competitions, and for consumer-to-consumer interaction, for example, with mobile social networking, chatting and dating.
Text messaging is widely used on business settings; as well, it is used in a number of civil service and non-governmental organization workplaces. And Canadian civil service both adopted Blackberry smartphones in the s.
Group texts[ edit ] Group texts involve more than two users. In some cases, when one or more person on the group text is offline, in airplane mode, or has their device shut down, a text being sent to the group may reveal an error message that the text did not go through. Users should rest assured, that all online or available users on the group received the message and that re-sending the message will only result in some participants receiving the message multiple times.
Some websites provide free SMS for promoting premium business packages. Europe follows next behind Asia in terms of the popularity of the use of SMS. In , an average of 16 billion messages were sent each month. Users in Spain sent a little more than fifty messages per month on average in Curiously, France has not taken to SMS in the same way, sending just under 20 messages on average per user per month. France has the same GSM technology as other European countries, so the uptake is not hampered by technical restrictions.
In the Republic of Ireland, 1. In Finland, which has very high mobile phone ownership rates, some TV channels began "SMS chat", which involved sending short messages to a phone number, and the messages would be shown on TV. Chats are always moderated, which prevents users from sending offensive material to the channel.
The craze evolved into quizzes and strategy games and then faster-paced games designed for television and SMS control. Games require users to register their nickname and send short messages to control a character onscreen.
Messages usually cost 0. In , the Prime Minister of Finland , Matti Vanhanen , made the news when he allegedly broke up with his girlfriend with a text message. It is about an executive who travels through Europe and India. The reasons for lower uptake than other countries are varied. Many users have unlimited "mobile-to-mobile" minutes, high monthly minute allotments, or unlimited service.
Moreover, " push to talk " services offer the instant connectivity of SMS and are typically unlimited. The integration between competing providers and technologies necessary for cross-network text messaging was not initially available. Some providers originally charged extra for texting, reducing its appeal.
Japanese adolescents first began text messaging, because it was a cheaper form of communication than the other available forms.
Thus, Japanese theorists created the selective interpersonal relationship theory, claiming that mobile phones can change social networks among young people classified as to year-olds. They theorized this age group had extensive but low-quality relationships with friends, and mobile-phone usage may facilitate improvement in the quality of their relationships. They concluded this age group prefers "selective interpersonal relationships in which they maintain particular, partial, but rich relations, depending on the situation.
This indicates participants make new relationships with face-to-face communication at an early stage, but use text messaging to increase their contact later on. It is also interesting to note that as the relationships between participants grew more intimate, the frequency of text messaging also increased. However, short messaging has been largely rendered obsolete by the prevalence of mobile Internet e-mail, which can be sent to and received from any e-mail address, mobile or otherwise.
That said, while usually presented to the user simply as a uniform "mail" service and most users are unaware of the distinction , the operators may still internally transmit the content as short messages, especially if the destination is on the same network.
China[ edit ] Text messaging is popular and cheap in China. About billion messages were sent in Text message spam is also a problem in China. It is about It is routine that the People's Republic of China government monitor text messages across the country for illegal content. These manuals are published as cheap, handy, smaller-than-pocket-size booklets that offer diverse linguistic phrases to utilize as messages. In , Philippine mobile-service providers launched SMS more widely across the country, with initial television marketing campaigns targeting hearing-impaired users.
The service was initially free with subscriptions, but Filipinos quickly exploited the feature to communicate for free instead of using voice calls, which they would be charged for.
After telephone companies realized this trend, they began charging for SMS. Even after users were charged for SMS, it remained cheap, about one-tenth of the price of a voice call. This low price led to about five million Filipinos owning a cell phone by Filipinos used texting not only for social messages but also for political purposes, as it allowed the Filipinos to express their opinions on current events and political issues.
In , Spark was broken into two companies, with Chorus Ltd taking the landline infrastructure and Spark NZ providing services including over their mobile network. Africa[ edit ] Text messaging will become a key revenue driver for mobile network operators in Africa over the next couple of years. A person may now carry out a conversation with another user without the constraint of being expected to reply within a short amount of time and without needing to set time aside to engage in conversation.
With voice calling, both participants need to be free at the same time. Mobile phone users can maintain communication during situations in which a voice call is impractical, impossible, or unacceptable, such as during a school class or work meeting. Texting has provided a venue for participatory culture , allowing viewers to vote in online and TV polls, as well as receive information while they are on the move.
Texting can also bring people together and create a sense of community through " Smart Mobs " or "Net War", which create "people power". Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. August Main article: To avoid the even more limited message lengths allowed when using Cyrillic or Greek letters, speakers of languages written in those alphabets often use the Latin alphabet for their own language.
In certain languages utilizing diacritic marks, such as Polish, SMS technology created an entire new variant of written language: Historically, this language developed out of shorthand used in bulletin board systems and later in Internet chat rooms , where users would abbreviate some words to allow a response to be typed more quickly, though the amount of time saved was often inconsequential. However, this became much more pronounced in SMS, where mobile phone users either have a numeric keyboard with older cellphones or a small QWERTY keyboard for s-era smartphones , so more effort is required to type each character, and there is sometimes a limit on the number of characters that may be sent.
In Mandarin Chinese , numbers that sound similar to words are used in place of those words. Predictive text software, which attempts to guess words Tegic 's T9 as well as iTap or letters Eatoni's LetterWise reduces the labour of time-consuming input. This makes abbreviations not only less necessary, but slower to type than regular words that are in the software's dictionary. However, it makes the messages longer, often requiring the text message to be sent in multiple parts and, therefore, costing more to send.
The use of text messaging has changed the way that people talk and write essays, some  believing it to be harmful. Children today are receiving cell phones at an age as young as eight years old; more than 35 percent of children in second and third grade have their own mobile phone.
Because of this, the texting language is integrated into the way that students think from an earlier age than ever before. The use of diacritic marks is dropped in languages such as French, as well as symbols in Ethiopian languages. In his book, Txtng: The use of pictograms and logograms in texts are present in every language.
They shorten words by using symbols to represent the word or symbols whose name sounds like a syllable of the word such as in 2day or b4.
This is commonly used in other languages as well.