Updating ports with portsnap. Upgrading FreeBSD Ports.



Updating ports with portsnap

Updating ports with portsnap

Each set of these files is used to compile and install an individual application on FreeBSD, and is called a port. Before an application can be compiled using a port, the Ports Collection must first be installed.

If it was not installed during the installation of FreeBSD, use one of the following methods to install it: This is a fast and user-friendly tool for retrieving the Ports Collection and is the recommended choice for most users.

The key is used to verify the integrity of all downloaded files. Subversion Method If more control over the ports tree is needed or if local changes need to be maintained, Subversion can be used to obtain the Ports Collection.

Refer to the Subversion Primer for a detailed description of Subversion. Subversion must be installed before it can be used to check out the ports tree. If a copy of the ports tree is already present, install Subversion like this: Inside each category are subdirectories for individual applications.

Each application subdirectory contains a set of files that tells FreeBSD how to compile and install that program, called a ports skeleton. Each port skeleton includes these files and directories: This directory may also contain other files used to build the port.

It also tells the ports system which files to remove upon deinstallation. Some ports include pkg-message or other files to handle special situations. The port does not include the actual source code, also known as a distfile.

Installing Ports This section provides basic instructions on using the Ports Collection to install or remove software. The detailed description of available make targets and environment variables is available in ports 7. Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports Collection as described in the previous section.

Since the installation of any third-party software can introduce security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check https: Alternately, run pkg audit -F before installing a new port.

This command can be configured to automatically perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability database during the daily security system check. For more information, refer to pkg-audit 8 and periodic 8. Using the Ports Collection assumes a working Internet connection. It also requires superuser privilege. To compile and install the port, change to the directory of the port to be installed, then type make install at the prompt.

Messages will indicate the progress: This port has installed the following binaries which execute with increased privileges. Once the installation is complete, the prompt will be returned. Some shells keep a cache of the commands that are available in the directories listed in the PATH environment variable, to speed up lookup operations for the executable file of these commands.

Users of the tcsh shell should type rehash so that a newly installed command can be used without specifying its full path. Use hash -r instead for the sh shell. Refer to the documentation for the shell for more information.

During installation, a working subdirectory is created which contains all the temporary files used during compilation. Removing this directory saves disk space and minimizes the chance of problems later when upgrading to the newer version of the port: To save this extra step, instead use make install clean when compiling the port.

Customizing Ports Installation Some ports provide build options which can be used to enable or disable application components, provide security options, or allow for other customizations. If the port depends upon other ports which have configurable options, it may pause several times for user interaction as the default behavior is to prompt the user to select options from a menu. To avoid this and do all of the configuration in one batch, run make config-recursive within the port skeleton.

Then, run make install [clean] to compile and install the port. When using config-recursive, the list of ports to configure are gathered by the all-depends-list target. It is recommended to run make config-recursive until all dependent ports options have been defined, and ports options screens no longer appear, to be certain that all dependency options have been configured. There are several ways to revisit a port's build options menu in order to add, remove, or change these options after a port has been built.

One method is to cd into the directory containing the port and type make config. Another option is to use make showconfig. Another option is to execute make rmconfig which will remove all selected options and allow you to start over. All of these options, and others, are explained in great detail in ports 7.

The ports system uses fetch 1 to download the source files, which supports various environment variables. See fetch 3 for the complete list of supported variables. Note that if a port has any dependencies, running this command in a category or ports skeleton will not fetch the distfiles of ports from another category. Instead, use make fetch-recursive to also fetch the distfiles for all the dependencies of a port.

When using, specify the alternate location: These can also be set as environmental variables. Refer to the manual page for your shell for instructions on how to set an environmental variable. Removing Installed Ports Installed ports can be uninstalled using pkg delete. Examples for using this command can be found in the pkg-delete 8 manual page. Alternately, make deinstall can be run in the port's directory: If the port has any applications that depend upon it, this information will be displayed but the uninstallation will proceed.

In such cases, it may be better to reinstall the application in order to prevent broken dependencies. Upgrading Ports Over time, newer versions of software become available in the Ports Collection.

This section describes how to determine which software can be upgraded and how to perform the upgrade. On FreeBSD 10 and later, or if the system has been converted to pkg, the following command will list the installed ports which are out of date: X and lower, the following command will list the installed ports that are out of date: This file describes various issues and additional steps users may encounter and need to perform when updating a port, including such things as file format changes, changes in locations of configuration files, or any incompatibilities with previous versions.

Make note of any instructions which match any of the ports that need upgrading and follow these instructions when performing the upgrade. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. Historically, most installations used either Portmaster or Portupgrade. Synth is a newer alternative. The choice of which tool is best for a particular system is up to the system administrator. It is recommended practice to back up your data before using any of these tools. It is designed to use the tools installed with the FreeBSD base system without depending on other ports or databases.

To install this utility as a port: To list these categories and search for updates: By default, Portmaster makes a backup package before deleting the existing port.

If the installation of the new version is successful, Portmaster deletes the backup. Using -b instructs Portmaster not to automatically delete the backup. Adding -i starts Portmaster in interactive mode, prompting for confirmation before upgrading each port.

Many other options are available. Read through the manual page for portmaster 8 for details regarding their usage. If errors are encountered during the upgrade process, add -f to upgrade and rebuild all ports: To use this function, specify the location of the port in the Ports Collection: It installs a suite of applications which can be used to manage ports. However, it is dependent upon Ruby. To install the port: To upgrade all the outdated ports installed on the system, use portupgrade -a.

Alternately, include -i to be asked for confirmation of every individual upgrade: It is very important to include -R to first upgrade all the ports required by the given application: If none are available locally, it then fetches packages from a remote site.

If packages can not be found locally or fetched remotely, Portupgrade will use ports. To avoid using ports entirely, specify -PP. This last set of options tells Portupgrade to abort if no packages are available: For further information on all of the available switches, refer to the manual page for portupgrade. After building and installing a port, running make clean within the ports skeleton will clean up the temporary work directory. If Portmaster is used to install a port, it will automatically remove this directory unless -K is specified.

If Portupgrade is installed, this command will remove all work directories found within the local copy of the Ports Collection: To use Portupgrade to delete all the distfiles that are no longer referenced by any ports:

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Updating ports with portsnap

Each set of these files is used to compile and install an individual application on FreeBSD, and is called a port.

Before an application can be compiled using a port, the Ports Collection must first be installed. If it was not installed during the installation of FreeBSD, use one of the following methods to install it: This is a fast and user-friendly tool for retrieving the Ports Collection and is the recommended choice for most users.

The key is used to verify the integrity of all downloaded files. Subversion Method If more control over the ports tree is needed or if local changes need to be maintained, Subversion can be used to obtain the Ports Collection.

Refer to the Subversion Primer for a detailed description of Subversion. Subversion must be installed before it can be used to check out the ports tree. If a copy of the ports tree is already present, install Subversion like this: Inside each category are subdirectories for individual applications. Each application subdirectory contains a set of files that tells FreeBSD how to compile and install that program, called a ports skeleton.

Each port skeleton includes these files and directories: This directory may also contain other files used to build the port. It also tells the ports system which files to remove upon deinstallation.

Some ports include pkg-message or other files to handle special situations. The port does not include the actual source code, also known as a distfile.

Installing Ports This section provides basic instructions on using the Ports Collection to install or remove software. The detailed description of available make targets and environment variables is available in ports 7. Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports Collection as described in the previous section.

Since the installation of any third-party software can introduce security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check https: Alternately, run pkg audit -F before installing a new port. This command can be configured to automatically perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability database during the daily security system check. For more information, refer to pkg-audit 8 and periodic 8.

Using the Ports Collection assumes a working Internet connection. It also requires superuser privilege. To compile and install the port, change to the directory of the port to be installed, then type make install at the prompt. Messages will indicate the progress: This port has installed the following binaries which execute with increased privileges. Once the installation is complete, the prompt will be returned. Some shells keep a cache of the commands that are available in the directories listed in the PATH environment variable, to speed up lookup operations for the executable file of these commands.

Users of the tcsh shell should type rehash so that a newly installed command can be used without specifying its full path. Use hash -r instead for the sh shell. Refer to the documentation for the shell for more information. During installation, a working subdirectory is created which contains all the temporary files used during compilation.

Removing this directory saves disk space and minimizes the chance of problems later when upgrading to the newer version of the port: To save this extra step, instead use make install clean when compiling the port. Customizing Ports Installation Some ports provide build options which can be used to enable or disable application components, provide security options, or allow for other customizations.

If the port depends upon other ports which have configurable options, it may pause several times for user interaction as the default behavior is to prompt the user to select options from a menu. To avoid this and do all of the configuration in one batch, run make config-recursive within the port skeleton. Then, run make install [clean] to compile and install the port.

When using config-recursive, the list of ports to configure are gathered by the all-depends-list target. It is recommended to run make config-recursive until all dependent ports options have been defined, and ports options screens no longer appear, to be certain that all dependency options have been configured. There are several ways to revisit a port's build options menu in order to add, remove, or change these options after a port has been built.

One method is to cd into the directory containing the port and type make config. Another option is to use make showconfig. Another option is to execute make rmconfig which will remove all selected options and allow you to start over. All of these options, and others, are explained in great detail in ports 7.

The ports system uses fetch 1 to download the source files, which supports various environment variables. See fetch 3 for the complete list of supported variables. Note that if a port has any dependencies, running this command in a category or ports skeleton will not fetch the distfiles of ports from another category. Instead, use make fetch-recursive to also fetch the distfiles for all the dependencies of a port.

When using, specify the alternate location: These can also be set as environmental variables. Refer to the manual page for your shell for instructions on how to set an environmental variable. Removing Installed Ports Installed ports can be uninstalled using pkg delete. Examples for using this command can be found in the pkg-delete 8 manual page. Alternately, make deinstall can be run in the port's directory: If the port has any applications that depend upon it, this information will be displayed but the uninstallation will proceed.

In such cases, it may be better to reinstall the application in order to prevent broken dependencies. Upgrading Ports Over time, newer versions of software become available in the Ports Collection. This section describes how to determine which software can be upgraded and how to perform the upgrade. On FreeBSD 10 and later, or if the system has been converted to pkg, the following command will list the installed ports which are out of date: X and lower, the following command will list the installed ports that are out of date: This file describes various issues and additional steps users may encounter and need to perform when updating a port, including such things as file format changes, changes in locations of configuration files, or any incompatibilities with previous versions.

Make note of any instructions which match any of the ports that need upgrading and follow these instructions when performing the upgrade.

Each has its strengths and weaknesses. Historically, most installations used either Portmaster or Portupgrade. Synth is a newer alternative. The choice of which tool is best for a particular system is up to the system administrator. It is recommended practice to back up your data before using any of these tools. It is designed to use the tools installed with the FreeBSD base system without depending on other ports or databases.

To install this utility as a port: To list these categories and search for updates: By default, Portmaster makes a backup package before deleting the existing port. If the installation of the new version is successful, Portmaster deletes the backup. Using -b instructs Portmaster not to automatically delete the backup. Adding -i starts Portmaster in interactive mode, prompting for confirmation before upgrading each port.

Many other options are available. Read through the manual page for portmaster 8 for details regarding their usage. If errors are encountered during the upgrade process, add -f to upgrade and rebuild all ports: To use this function, specify the location of the port in the Ports Collection: It installs a suite of applications which can be used to manage ports.

However, it is dependent upon Ruby. To install the port: To upgrade all the outdated ports installed on the system, use portupgrade -a. Alternately, include -i to be asked for confirmation of every individual upgrade: It is very important to include -R to first upgrade all the ports required by the given application: If none are available locally, it then fetches packages from a remote site.

If packages can not be found locally or fetched remotely, Portupgrade will use ports. To avoid using ports entirely, specify -PP. This last set of options tells Portupgrade to abort if no packages are available: For further information on all of the available switches, refer to the manual page for portupgrade. After building and installing a port, running make clean within the ports skeleton will clean up the temporary work directory.

If Portmaster is used to install a port, it will automatically remove this directory unless -K is specified. If Portupgrade is installed, this command will remove all work directories found within the local copy of the Ports Collection: To use Portupgrade to delete all the distfiles that are no longer referenced by any ports:

Updating ports with portsnap

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  1. After building and installing a port, running make clean within the ports skeleton will clean up the temporary work directory.

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